Vascular cognitive impairment: epidemiology, subtypes, diagnosis and management

Dementia occurs after stroke in 25% of patients but also can arise from covert cerebrovascular disease (CVD). ‘Silent’ lacunes occur in 25% of the elderly, often associated with focal or confluent hyperintensities on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, which are detected in 95% of seniors. These covert infarcts predict future stroke and faster cognitive decline. Best practice guidelines advocate screening for cognitive impairment in all phases of overt stroke, when covert CVD is uncovered, when vascular risk factors are present and if patients