Autoimmune encephalitis

Autoimmune encephalitis is emerging as an important and relatively common cause of encephalitis in the developed world. Crucially, early recognition and prompt initiation of a range of immunotherapies is likely to improve the outcomes of patients with autoimmune encephalitis, particularly for those with identifiable antibodies against neuronal cell surface proteins. There are a rapidly growing number of specific autoantibodies and associated syndromes, but many of these remain very rare.

Henry VIII, McLeod syndrome and Jacquetta’s curse

The mental decline of King Henry VIII from being a jovial, charismatic and
athletic young man into an increasingly paranoid, brutal tyrant in later life, ever more
concerned at his lack of one or more male heirs, has attracted many medical
diagnostic theories. Previous hypotheses have included diabetes, syphilis and
hypothyroidism, among others. However, these inadequately explain Henry’s failure
to produce a male heir, despite multiple pairings. The latest postulated diagnoses for

Neuropsychiatric features of Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is a chronic, progressive, neurodegenerative condition that damages central nervous system pathways. In addition to the wellrecognised motor features of the disease, patients commonly experience nonmotor symptoms including neuropsychiatric complications. These symptoms may precede motor symptoms and have a very significant impact on quality of life for patients and their carers.

Keywords Dementia, depression, impulsivity, neuropsychiatric, Parkinson’s, psychosis

The history of ergot of rye (Claviceps purpurea)III: 1940–80

The period 1940–80 in the history of ergot was dominated by two investigators, Arthur Stoll and Albert Hofmann. There was great excitement when their group isolated from ergot preparations the powerful psychotropic agent lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). It was thought that this substance would help to find the cause of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, but it would prove to be a great disappointment and Hofmann would say later, in private, that he regretted having spent so much time on the compound.