An enigmatic trio of Klinefelter’s syndrome, autoimmune hypothyroidism and nephrotic syndrome


Klinefelter’s syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder associated with testicular dysfunction and male infertility. Those affected by Klinefelter’s syndrome are at increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus, breast cancer, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and lung cancer. Nephrotic syndrome in association with Klinefelter’s syndrome has never been reported in the literature.

Current practices in the management of diabetic nephropathy

The social and economic burden of treating patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is rapidly rising. Current projections estimate the global prevalence of individuals with DM to rise from 6.4% (285 million) in 2010 to 7.7% (439 million) in 2030.1 The main problem with this disease entity is its propensity to incur macro- and micro-vascular complications over time, including diabetic nephropathy (DN).

The prevalence of proteinuria in patients presenting with fluid retention due to heart failure

The prevalence of proteinuria in patients presenting acutely with oedema due to heart failure has not been studied extensively. Recent evidence from the Candesartan in Heart failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM) trial suggests that there is a high prevalence of albuminuria in chronic heart failure patients. We set out to investigate the prevalence of proteinuria in patients presenting with fluid retention secondary to heart failure. A random collection of urine albumin–creatinine ratios (ACRs) in successive patients was used to quantify proteinuria.