Tenofovir-induced delayed nephro-osteo toxicity

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is the foundation nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitor in the recommended first-line regimen for all naive human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) patients whose age is more than 10 years and body weight is more than 30 kg. Although it has a good safety profile overall, nephrotoxicity is a concern and its overall incidence is 1–6% with a long period of clinical latency.