Pulmonary sarcoidosis: a clinical update

Sarcoidosis remains difficult to diagnose, assess and treat. The last decade has brought significant diagnostic and therapeutic advances in the field of sarcoidosis including endobronchial ultrasound, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and biologics. In this article we use clinical vignettes to discuss commonly encountered cases to illustrate and explain the application of these, and other advances.

A case of a ‘rude’ but not to be missed manifestation of epilepsy: ictal swearing

Swearing or profanity is offensive language, which can be vulgar or curse words or phrases deemed inappropriate for formal conversations. It has been deeply rooted in our community and seen as a common human act. In fact, swearing is described in various neurological conditions, such as Tourette syndrome, Lesch–Nyhan syndrome and post stroke or encephalitis.

An unusual mediastinal mass

We report a case of a mediastinal mass indenting the left lateral tracheal wall of a 35-year-old male who presented with weight loss, cough and breathlessness. Flow volume loop and thyroid function tests were normal and thyroid peroxidase antibodies were negative. Technetium scintigraphy and positron emission tomography both showed no uptake. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed ectopic mediastinal thyroid tissue.