Some (mostly Scottish) local anaesthetic heroes

In 1884 a young Viennese doctor, Carl Koller, was the first to recognise the significance of the topical effects of the alkaloid cocaine and thus introduced drug-induced local anaesthesia to clinical practice. Most subsequent development took place in Europe and the United States, with British interest not becoming apparent for over twenty years. This is surprising because a number of doctors working in Scotland, or with Scottish connections, had made important contributions to the earlier evolution of local anaesthetic techniques.