Autoimmune encephalitis

Autoimmune encephalitis is emerging as an important and relatively common cause of encephalitis in the developed world. Crucially, early recognition and prompt initiation of a range of immunotherapies is likely to improve the outcomes of patients with autoimmune encephalitis, particularly for those with identifiable antibodies against neuronal cell surface proteins. There are a rapidly growing number of specific autoantibodies and associated syndromes, but many of these remain very rare.

IgG4-related pulmonary disease: the protean impersonator?


IgG4-related disease is an immune-mediated fibro-inflammatory disease, characterised by distinct pathological features. An increasing number of clinical phenotypes are described, from single-organ disease to a multisystem disorder, which can present to a variety of different specialities. Recognition is key; its protean manifestations can mimic other inflammatory diseases, infection and malignancy. Here, we present three cases to highlight the importance of being familiar with this condition in its various forms