Severe intracranial atherosclerotic disease presenting as symptomatic isolated convexity subarachnoid haemorrhage

Isolated convexity cortical subarachnoid haemorrhage (cSAH) is a rare form of non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage localised to one or few cortical sulci of the brain without involving the adjacent brain parenchyma or spreading to sylvian fissure, interhemispheric fissure, basal cisterns and ventricles. cSAH has multiple aetiologies described in medical literature. Intracranial high-grade stenosis is rarely presented as cSAH, especially in young adult patients. Patients presenting with cSAH warrant appropriate diagnostic work up to identify and treat the underlying aetiology.

What happens to the heart in chronic kidney disease

Cardiovascular disease is common in patients with chronic kidney disease. The increased risk of cardiovascular disease seen in this population is attributable to both traditional and novel vascular risk factors. Risk of sudden cardiac or arrhythmogenic death is greatly exaggerated in chronic kidney disease, particularly in patients with end stage renal disease where the risk is roughly 20 times that of the general population.