Journal Mobile

HJ Roberts, WS Lim
Journal Issue: 
Volume 37: Issue 3: 2007




Influenza  and Streptococcus  pneumoniae cause  considerable  morbidity and mortality. Excess deaths in the UK per year from influenza have been between 2,000  and  4,000  in  recent  years.    There  are  over  5,000  cases  of  invasive pneumococcal disease in the UK per annum.  Vaccination was introduced to the UK in the eighteenth century.  Since then, there have been major advances in the development and administration of vaccines. The use of hens’ eggs for viral growth meant  that  influenza  vaccination  became  more  widely  available,  and  the recognition of different serotypes of pneumococcus led to increased effectiveness of  immunisation.   Recent  developments  have  led  to  a  conjugate  pneumococcal vaccine which is effective in children and has had dramatic effects on the incidence of invasive disease in the US.  It has recently been introduced into the childhood immunisation  programme  in  the  UK.   This  article  gives  a  background  to  the development of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination, and an update on recent advances and recommendations.