Distribution and presentation of Lyme borreliosis in Scotland – analysis of data from a national testing laboratory

This study examines the distribution of laboratory-confirmed cases of Lyme borreliosis in Scotland and the clinical spectrum of presentations within NHS Highland.

Methods General demographic data (age/sex/referring Health Board) from all cases of Lyme borreliosis serologically confirmed by the National Lyme Borreliosis Testing Laboratory from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2013 were analysed. Clinical features of confirmed cases were ascertained from questionnaires sent to referring clinicians within NHS Highland during the study period.

Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections in the Scottish Borders: identification, management and treatment outcomes – a retrospective review

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria are opportunist pathogens increasingly recognised as a cause of pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease. Treatment is complicated, prolonged and potentially toxic, and due to a limited evidence base, potentially contentious and idiosyncratic. This is a retrospective review of nontuberculous mycobacteria cases in the NHS Borders Health Board between 1992 and 2010. We consider incidence, species identified, drug sensitivity testing and treatment outcome with reference to the British and American Thoracic Society guidelines.

Acute kidney injury

Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a medical emergency associated with poor clinical outcomes. The international guideline group Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) has defined AKI according to rises in serum creatinine and/or reductions in urine output. Any patient who meets the criteria for AKI should be reviewed to ascertain the cause of AKI and the severity of the injury should be staged. Patients with more severe AKI are at greater risk of progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Care of the elderly symposium report

This symposium covered a wide range of conditions of interest to the geriatrician, the general physician and the general practitioner, including demographic shift, the epidemiology of ageing, diabetes in older people, investigation and management of falls, an update on stroke (including the role of neurovascular clinics, stroke thrombolysis and rehabilitation) and the management of coronary heart disease in the elderly.

Observations regarding historical accounts of pneumococcal diseases due to serotypes 1 and 3

Surveillance of the serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal diseases in the UK has indicated increasing incidence of serotype 1- and serotype 3-related disease in recent years. The introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to the paediatric vaccination schedule in 2006, which did not cover these serotypes, has been regarded as a contributing factor. Serotypes 1 and 3 were perhaps the most extensively studied pneumococcal serotypes in the early twentieth century when pneumococcal serotyping began.

Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections in the Scottish Borders: identification, management and treatment outcomes – a retrospective review

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria are opportunist pathogens increasingly recognised as a cause of pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease. Treatment is complicated, prolonged and potentially toxic, and due to a limited evidence base, potentially contentious and idiosyncratic. This is a retrospective review of nontuberculous mycobacteria cases in the NHS Borders Health Board between 1992 and 2010. We consider incidence, species identified, drug sensitivity testing and treatment outcome with reference to the British and American Thoracic Society guidelines.

Genetic epidemiology

The field of genetic epidemiology has advanced considerably over the past decade. The falling costs of genome-wide association studies have allowed the identification of many common genetic variants associated with risk of illness. This has advanced the understanding of disease pathogenesis but has not led to widespread changes in care. As these studies have become more common, a framework for reporting findings in the literature has been developed to ensure clinicians can accurately interpret the research.

Public health aspects of tuberculosis

This article covers public health aspects of the investigation and management of people who are infected with tuberculosis (TB). It contains a brief overview of the recent epidemiology of TB in Scotland, focusing on changes in Scottish TB incidence and describing some epidemiological associations. We then describe the initial public health assessment of those with suspected TB and responses that should be initiated. It does not address issues relating to the clinical treatment of patients with TB.